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AStudyofNegativeTransfero|亚博app英超买球的首选

本文摘要:AStudyofNegativeTransferofNativeLanguageonSeniorHighSchoolEnglishWritingAbstractWriting,anoutputskill,isattachedimportancebyincreasingteachersandstudentsinEnglishteachingofournation.GrowingscoreshavebeenaddedtowritinginCollegeEntranceExamination.Nevertheless,thereislittleeffectiveprogressinseniorhighschoolstudents’writingcapacity.WhatcausedthisphenomenonisthatthecurrentEnglishstudyisalwaysbasedonnativelanguagetoacertainextant.Therefore,theinfluenceofnativelanguageishardtobeavoided.Inresponsetothisphenomenon,IanalyzetheimpactofmothertongueuponhighschoolEnglishwritingspecificallyinaccordancewiththerelativetheoriesonlanguagetransfer.ThisthesisbeginningwiththeEnglishwritingofseniorhighschoolstudentswithcombinationofrelevanttheoriesasSecondLanguageAcquisitionandpreviousresearchachievements,analyzestheerrorsinEnglishcausedbynativelanguagenegativetransferquantitativelyandqualitatively.Ichoosethreedifferenttypesofhighschools,75studentseachschool,225intotal,toconductquestionnairesurveyandasamplingtest.Thetestresultshowsthatseniorhighschoolstudentsareinterferedbynativelanguageatdifferentdegrees.Intermsofforms,lexis,sentencestructureanddiscourse,theerrorsresultedinmothertonguenegativetransferareinduced.Eachsentenceisattachedbytypicalexamplestofindoutthereasonsleadingtothecommonerrorsbymothertonguenegativetransfer.Finally,thisthesisarrivesataconclusionthatEnglishteachersaresupposedtotrainthewritingofhighschoolstudentsinaspectstolexis,sentencewritingpatternsandstructuresforthesakeoftheimprovementofwritingabilityaswellasabettereffectonEnglishwritinglesson.Thisthesisiscomposedofsixchapters.Chapteroneistheintroductiondescribingthebackground,thesignificanceandthecorrelativebasictheoriesofthisthesis,involvinginterlanguagetheory,erroranalysisaswellastransporttheory,atlast,therelatedresearchesathomeandaboard.Chaptertwo,thestudydesign,introducestheobjectofstudy,researchmethodsandproceduresinthefirstplaceandthefurtherexplanationsofthetwomethodsincluded,theproceduresofquestionnaireandcompositionanalysis.Afterwards,IsortouttheerrorsinEnglishwritingandcollectthedata.Chapterthreepresentsthestudyresultsandanalysis.Inthischapter,thethesisanalyzesanddiscussestheresultofquestionnaireandthedataoferroranalysistopointoutwhymothertonguenegativetransferimpactsonEnglishwriting.  chapterfour,thecoreofthewholethesis,inwhichthenegativetransfertheoryisunitedwithinstanceanalysis,analyzesthetypesandreasonsoftheseerrorsfromtheaspectsofform,lexis,sentencestructureanddiscourse.  Chapterfiveisappliedtopropoundthesuggestions,onthebasisofnegativetransferphenomenon,aimingatpromotingwritingabilityofstudentsandhelpingEnglishteachersavoidsucherrorseffectivelybyloweringthenegativeinfluencefrommothertongue.  Chaptersix,thelastpart,statesthelimitationofthisthesisandtheconsiderationoffurtherstudy.  Keywords:negativetransferofmothertongue;Englishwriting;inspiration目录概要1Abstract3目录5Introduction6ChapterIliteraturereview81.1Transferandlanguagetransfer81.2Erroranalysis101.3Interlanguagetheory12ChapterIIResearchMethod142.1ThePurposeofThisResearch142.2TheStudyObject142.3TheResearchMethod152.3.1QuestionnaireSurvey152.3.2CompositionAnalysis16ChapterIIIDataAnalysis183.1TheDataAnalysisofQuestionnaire183.2DataAnalysisofErrorinComposition193.3TheSurveySummaryofNativeLanguageNegativeTransfer22ChapterIVTheInstanceAnalysisofNativeLanguageTransferinHighSchoolStudents’Writing234.1.1ArticalError244.1.2VerbFormError254.1.3NounFormError274.1.4PronounFormError284.4LexicalTransferErrors294.2.1MisapplicationofPartsofSpeech294.2.2MisapplicationoftheMeaningofVocabulary334.2.3InappropriateCollocation344.3TheTransferErrorsinSentenceStructure374.3.1LackofConjunctionsandFalseArrangementofSimpleSentences374.3.4MisapplicationofSubordinateandCoordinateConjunctions424.3.5MisapplicationofNegation424.3.6WordDisorder434.4TransferErrorsatDiscourseLevel454.4.1NegativeTransferofDiscoursePattern454.4.2NegativeTransferofCohesion47ChapterVEnglishPedagogicalImplicationsSummarizedfromPreviousStudy485.1AdoptaPositiveAttitudetowardstheErrorsRootingfromtheNegativeTransferofNativeLanguage495.3EnforcingCross-culturalCommunicationAwareness535.4EnforcingLanguageInputthroughReadingandReciting545.4.1Enforcingreading545.4.2Enforcingreciting55Bibliography58AppendixⅠ61AppendixII63AppendixIII64AppendixIV65                        IntroductionTheNewEnglishCurriculumStandardwasputforward,explicatingthatseniorEnglish,asthecrucialcurriculumtoenhancelanguageabilityandtocultivatecomprehensivequalityeducationofstudent,issupposedtodevelopbothstudents’comprehensivelanguageapplicationabilityandthethreefollowingcapacitiesemphaticallyincludingtheabilityofusingEnglishtocommunicateappropriately;ofobtainingandprocessinginformation;ofanalyzingandsettlingamatter(2002).Thinkingandexpressionlayafoundationfortheabilitiesmentionedabove.Expressionabilityembracestheabilityofexpressingorallyandinwrittenform,amongwhichEnglishwrittenformisalsocanbethoughtasakindofextremelyvitalone,.DingWangdao,onefamouslinguistician,oncesuggestedthatwritingplaysalargeroleinEnglishlearningprocess(丁往道,1994).Asaresult,thecapacityofusingEnglishtocommunicateisoughttobeseenasoneofthemainpurposesinlessons.RemainingacorepartofCollegeEntranceExamination,thescoresofwritinghasbeenincreasedfrom10%to20%overrecentyears.AnalyzedfromtheCollegeEntranceExaminationresults,students’writingabilityarestillatalowerlevel.Simplesentences,superfluoussinglesentences,erroneoususageofwordsandsentencesandthevestigesofChinesethinkingmodeappearinstudents’usualwriting(须玮菁,2010).Chinesestudents’writinglagsfarbehindtheircompetenceingrammar,vocabularyandreading(2002,蔡基刚).Fromtheperspectiveofanstudent-teacher,Ifoundthatthegreatmassofstudentshaveafearfulsenseforwriting,asgivingrisetotheunsatisfiedfeelingfortheirwritinginvoluntary.Inferringfromabovecircumstances,wehavegottoadmitthetruththatEnglishlearningislimitedbymothertonguebeyonddoubt.IncurrentEnglishteaching,however,Chinesestudentsarestillweakinwriting.EnglishteachersinChinaareunabletorealizeandanalyzetheerrorscausedbynativelanguagenegativetransfer.Therefore,mostofEnglishteachersjustgothroughthemotionsintheirteaching,whichplaguesstudentswithnegativetransferofmothertongueseverely.Naturally,thewritingabilityhasbeenleftbehind.Withthepurposeoftheenhancementofwriting,numerousexpertsjoininghandswithteachersachievedremarkablyintheirresearches,nonetheless,theresultsarefarfromsatisfactory.Linguistsabroadexperimentedmuchtoconfirmtheinterferenceonwriting.Overrecentyears,muchprogresshasbeenachievedinstudyingthenegativetransferofmothertongue.Forexample,themajorityofexpertshavefocusedonwritingstylebutfailedinthedifferencesbetweenthetwolanguages.Tiisuneasytodecidetheexactdegreeofinterferenceonlywithqualitativeanalysis.Inaddition,thedomesticempiricalstudiesinthisregardusuallyselectundergraduatesoradultsastheirresearchobjects,layingparticularstressonCET4orCET6.inconsequence,littleguidingsignificancewasshowedforEnglishwritingteaching.Inordertoworkoutmoreeffectiveapproachesandstrategiestomotivatestudentstolearn,I,absorbingandbenefitingfromthebasisoftheformerachievements,didtheempiricalresearchonnativelanguagenegativetransferinseniorhighschoolEnglishwriting,aimingatinvestigatingwhetherhighschoolstudentsdependonmothertonguethinking,thecommonerrorsengenderedbynegativetransferandthereasons.Andthen,wearecapabletoprovideafeasibleteachingstrategywhichissuitedtohighschoolwriting,asisofhelptowritingteaching.Duringthestudyprocess,Ianalyzevariouslayersofthenegativetransferoccurringamonghighschoolstudentsindetailwitherroranalysisandinterlanguagetheory,throughwhichEnglishteachersarecapableoftakingarightattitudetowardtheerrorsappearinginlearningandofdifferentiatingthedissimilaritiesbetweenmothertongueandEnglish,consciously.Accordingly,thewritingabilitycanbeimproved;theEnglishthinkingcanbeshaped;thesolidfoundationcanbelaid.Englishteachersarealsoequippedwithstrongconsciousnessofdiscoveringandsettlingproblemssimultaneously.ChapterIliteraturereviewThestudiesonthenegativetransferofnativelanguagehavebecomeprosperousafterdecadenceinmorethanhalfofcentury.Let’sretrospecttheseseveraltheoriesinvolvedbothdomesticandoverseasduringthephase.TransferandlanguagetransferTransferisapsychologicaltermoriginally,referringtohowreceivedknowledge,technicalability,learningmethodandattitudeaffectnewknowledge,newreceivedskillsandthewaytacklingnewproblems(陈琦,刘儒德,1997).Forinstance,studyingaforeignlanguageisconductivetoanotherone;readingcompetenceisabletocontributetosuccessfulwriting;bothofthesearetransfer.Notonlyhassuch,transfercontainedmotherskills,emotionandattitudeaswellbesidesknowledgetransfer.Therefore,transferissueisnotonlyconfinedtoknowledgelearningbutmanyotherfieldsoflearning.(郑大皆,1999).H.EllisdefinedtransferasahypothesisthatlearningtaskAwillexerteffectontaskB(H.Ellis,1965).JamesreplacedtaskAandtaskBinH.Ellis’definitionwithL1andL2(James,1980).Therearevariousversionsoflanguagetransferasamatteroffact.Forsome,theyconsistentwiththisperspectivethatlanguagetransferisonekindofmodestudyinglanguageacquisition,whileothersnominatelanguagetransferasanoutputstrategy.(俞理明,2004).Nevertheless,thepeoplebeingrecognizedandacceptedwidelyinthefieldoflinguisticsisOdlinwhoconsideredthattransfermeansakindofcross-linguisticinfluencebroughtaboutbythesimilarityordiscrepancybetweentargetlanguageandanyotheracquiredpartiallyandentirely,language(Odlin,1989).Healsopointedouttransferisreflectednotonlyinlearningerrors-negativetransferbutalsoinfacilitation-positivetransfer.Thatmeanspositivetransferreferstousingtheseknowledgewithreceivedlanguageknowledge,actuallyinlearningprocess.Conversely,negativetransferisalsocalledinterference,distractedbywhichstudentswillmakeerrorsinwriting.Regardlessofhowdifferentlywedefinetransfer,wehavetoadmit,acognitiveactivity,isamentalprocessingonone’sowninitiative.Profoundstudieshavebeenmadebymultitudinouspsychologistathomeandabroad,amongwhichcognitivestructuretheoryproposedbyAusubelrepresentsamainstreamdiscussingtransferfromtheviewofcognitiveviewpoint,cognitivestructuretheorystickstothepointthattransferisaprocessintegratingoldandnewexperience,achievedbymeansofassimilation,adaptationandreconstruction,theessenceofwhichistheinterplayislinkedwithrelevantconceptsintheexistingcognitivestructurestoformnewcognitivestructurethereby(须玮菁,2010).Inthelightofitseffects,transfercanbedividedintopositiveandnegativetransfer.Ifonesortoflearningfacilitatestheotherone,wecallitpositivetransfer.Ifutilizedappropriately,studentswillhavetheabilityofunderstandingtherestbyanalogy.Negativetransfer,alsocalledpassiveinfluence,hasanegativeeffectuponlanguagelearning.Negativetransfertheory,datingbacktothe1950s,hascontributedtolanguagelearningandstudy.AmericanstructuralistRobertLado(1975),therepresentativesofthisperiod,holdtheviewthatlanguagetransferimpedeslanguageacquisitionprimarily.Hesuggested,inCross-culturalLinguistics,thekeytoknowhowdifficultlearninglanguageitisliesincomparingnativelanguagewithforeignlanguage.Inaccordancewithsequence,transfercanbedividedintoforwardtransferandbackwardtransfer.Forexample,whenlearningAhappensbeforelearningB,wecalltheeffectfromAonBforwardtransfer.Rather,backwardtransfermeansinfluenceonBfromA.Thetwotransfersabovearecombinedtoproducefourforms-positiveforwardtransfer,positivebackwardtransfer,negativebackwardtransfer,negativeforwardtransfer.Forinstance,youlearnreadingfirst,thenwriting,andtheimprovementofreadingcompetenceconducestheformationofwritingcompetence.Thisway,thereisapositiveforwardtransfersituationbetweenreadingandwriting.Asanotherexample,ChinesephonemehasanegativeimpactuponlatterEnglishpronunciation,asiscallednegativeforwardtransfer.(张大皆,1999).Languagetransfer,asonekindoftransfers,hasbeenthefocusforpsychologistsandlinguiststostudyandargue.Commonelementstheory,proposedbyThordikeelal,suggeststhatthemorecommonelementsandsimilarities,theeasiertoproducepositivetransfer,onthecontrary,negativetransfertakesplace.Ifthistheoryisappliedinlanguagetransfer,themorecommonelementsbetweentwolanguages,itwillbeeasierforpositivetransfertohappen,otherwise,negativetransferwilloccur.Forinstance,Chinese,onepartoftheSino-Tibetanlinguisticsystem,sharelittlecommonelementswithEnglish,whichbringsaboutthemutualinterference,Ausubelheldthepoint,however,itisunpracticalandineffectivetoshuntheinterlanguageandthetransferroleplayedbymothertongue.Inotherwords,thenativeChinesespeakerwillbeinterferedwiththenegativetransferfromChineseundoubtedlyastoconstructtheirownprepositionandlanguagecompetencestructurewiththepurposeofapproachingEnglish(曾鹏,2005).1.2ErroranalysisErroranalysis,reigningovertheworldinthe1970s,displacedthecontrastivetheoryanalysiscomparingthedifferencesbetweennativelanguageandtargetlanguagetopredicterror(Fries,1952).Contrastiveanalysishypothesisproposedbybehaviorismscholar-Lado91957),supportswhatcauseslearningdifficultiesisthedissimilitudebetweennativeandtargetlanguage,whoseeffectisnegativesettinglearningback.Andyetcontrastiveanalysishypothesishasnotbeenprovedintheareaofempiricalresearch.Manyaexperimenthavedemonstratedthatlanguagedifferenceistherootreasonleadinglearningdifficulty.Erroranalysiswillsupersedecontrastiveanalysisforitslimitation.Nevertheless,thisdoesn’tsignifythereisnotanymitigatingvirtueincontrastiveanalysis.whenexplainingmassesofproblemsinsecondlanguagelearning,Jamesemphasizedthemutualcomplementationbetweenthetwo(James,1980).CorderformulatedthisviewinThesecondSignificanceofLearner’sError(Corder,1967).Corderregardederrorasanindispensablepartinlearningsecondlanguage.Learnerswouldnotpromotetheirlanguageabilitywithoutthefeedbackstemmingfromtheexternalworldsupposingtheydidnoterrinlearning,onaccountofwhichtheirlanguagelearningprocesswouldbehindered.Corderlaidstressontheerrorsappearedinstudyshowingagreathelpforteacherstorealizestudents’currentmasteredlanguagesystem,theachieveddegreeaswellaslearningstrategiesandprocedure.Corder’sthoughtshavebeenofimportanceforustodiscussstudents’languagedevelopment.Erroranalysisisconsideredtobeofsignificance,accordingtowhichCorderpinpointedthevaluetheerrorspossessedwhichincarnatedinthefollowingaspects:1,Teachersareabletounderstandhowstudentsdoinlearning;2,Researchersarecapableofawaringthelanguage;earningprocessandthelearningstrategiesadoptedbystudents;3,Astostudents,theycanjudgewhethertheymakearightassumptionbasedinthis9Corder,1967).Corderdividederroranalysisintofiveprocedures:①Select,collectandanalyzelinguisticdata:Duringcertainstages,collectsomelinguisticdatafromforeignlanguagelearnersonpurposethatcanbewrittenexercises,oralexpressionaswellaslisteningsurvey.Writtendataisutilizedinthisthesis.②Identifyandvalidateerror:conformingwhatiserrorisextremelycrucialinerroranalysis.wearesupposedtodistinguishwhetherthesentencesthestudentssaidmeetthecriterionornotinaccordancewithstandardsyntaxandcommunicativecontext.Corderclassifiedtheerrorsproducedinsecondlanguageacquisition,theformerofwhichiscommonlycallederroroccurringinlearningfrequentlywhichisimpossibletobecorrectedbystudentsthemselves;thelatterisnamedasmistakeengenderedonaccountoftensionorpoorshapeoflearnersbutnotrelatedtolanguageability(Corder,1974).Brown,however,thoughtitistoughtodifferentiatemistakeanderrorinvirtueofsubjectiveapproach(Brown,2002).Expressionalerroristhemainformamongagreatdealofhighschoolstudents’errorsappearingsocontinuallybeyondlearners’abilitywhichmaynotbedefinedascarelessnessornegligenceastoevolveintosystemerror.Inviewofthereasonsabove,thethesisdiscriminates,botharetheresearchobjects,thedifferencebetweenerrorandmistake.③Thecategoryoferrors:alargeamountofmethodsarecapableofbeingappliedtoclassifyerrors(suchasDulay,BurtandKrashen,1982;James,2001),butintheperspectiveofTames,allthesecategoriesareexcessivelysimplexanditwouldbebetterifutilizedtogether.ErrorcanbedividedintoglobalandpartialerrorstandingonthefacetofevaluationaccordingtoDulay,BurtandKrashen(1982).Globalerrorinvolvesthebiasedonecausedbythebreachofthewholesentencestructure,theinterrelationofclausesandtheconnectionamongthemaincomponents,suchasmisapplicationormissingofconjunction,reversingofmainphrasesandovergeneralizationofsyntaxrules.Partialerrorreferstothebiasederrorexistinginoneconstituentorinoneclauseofitscomplexsentence,forexample,misusingormissingthesuffixofverbandnoun,orarticleandauxiliary.Nevertheless,bynomeansdoseitmeanabsolutenessintheabovedistinguishment,becausetheglobalerrorinonesentencemaybecomethepartialoneinanothersentenceiftheformerisinsertedintoacomplexsentence.OvertandcoverterrorarethoughtastwocategoriesoferrorintermsofCorder.Theformercontainssomekindofevidenterrorsingrammarandvocabulary,forinstance,theerrorswithrespecttoplurals,lesssensitivetocause,spelling,tense,sentencestructure,themixingnounandverbaswellasadjectiveandadverb.Coverterrorreferstothiskindoferror.1.3InterlanguagetheoryProposedbyS.PitCorderandLarrySelinker,theconceptofInterlinguawasestablishedaslearners’independentsystemofthesecondlanguagewhichisofneitherthenativelanguagenorthesecondlanguage,butacontinuumorapproximationfromhisnativelanguagetothetargetlanguage.Whatlearnersproduce,correctorwrong,areevidenceoftheapproximationfromtheirfirstlanguagetothetargetlanguage.Fromthenonbymeansofvariousdatacollectionmethodsandanalysis,researchershavebeenmakingpainstakingeffortsinthehopethatsomeuniversaldevelopmentalsequenceofsecondlanguagelearners’interlinguawouldbediscovered(戴炜栋2002,164-165).AccordingtoSpelunker(1972),Interlinguareferstoasystemthatthelearnersofthesecondlanguageareacquiringandusingataparticularstageoflearning.Thephenomenonreferredtohavebeenusedbydifferentresearchers.ThemainviewsabouttheerrorsintheInterlinguatheoryarefollowing:errorsinthelanguageacquisitionaremaderulessomewhatinthetargetlanguage,notsystemrulesofthelanguageareconstructedbythelearnersthemselves.Inotherwords,tothelearners’ofthenativelanguage,anysentencewrittenisgrammaticalandright(Corder,1971:32).Nowadays,manyresearchersthinkerrorsarethesymbolsoflanguagedevelopment.Forerrors,therearenotanyrulestoobeyandlearnershavemasteredandknowhowtodealwiththerulesofthetargetlanguagecorrectly.SelinkerassumesthatInterlinguaisanaturallanguageandsystematicthroughoutinitsdevelopment.ThefirstlanguagereflectsthatthelearnerstrytoconstructalinguisticsystemandapproachesinlearningaSecondlanguage.DuringSecondLanguageAcquisitionlearning,thelearners’FirstLanguageLearninghasundergonedifferentstepsoflanguagedevelopment,becausethelearnersgothroughfromzeroknowledgetoperfectknowledgeinlanguagelearning.Selinker(1972)inaccordancetotheInterlinguaTheory,theknowledgeonthetargetlanguageacquired;thelearnersnotonlymixsimplylanguagecombiningthetargetlanguageandthemothertonguebutconsistaseriesofsystemswithspecificcharacteristics.Withthedevelopmentoflanguagelearningandtheadvancementofthelearners,theInterlinguamovescloserandclosertothetargetlanguage.Someimportantexamplesoftheterm“interlingua”actuallyrevealthenatureofInterlinguaitselfinacertainextent.TheInterlinguasystem,asitsnamesuggests,isneitherL1norL2butsomethinginbetween.ContrastiveAnalysisprovidestheoreticalbasisfor“whattoteach”and“howtoteach”,anditsresearchobjectsarethelearners’mothertongueandtargetlanguage.TheInterlinguatheoryisusedtorefertoashiftfromteachingperspectivetolearningperspective;itslanguagesystemisregardedtobeindependent,equaltolearners’mothertonguesystem.Inotherwords,Interlinguastudiesnotonlyrefertolearners’mothertonguesystem,buttherelationshipbetweenlearners’Interlinguasystemandthelearners’ownlearningprocess.Interlinguastudyobservesthecompletechanginginthestudyofsecondlanguageacquisition.WhenEllis(1994:351)evaluatestheInterlinguatheory,hepointsoutthattheInterlinguatheoryisasuitablebeginninginSecondLanguageAcquisitionresearch,asitaimsatprovidingexplainingtheoriesforSecondLanguageAcquisition.1.4TheDomesticandOverseasRelationalResearchonLanguageTransfer1.4.1DomesticResearchonLanguageTransfer1.4.2OverseasResearchonLanguageTransfer.1.4TheDomesticandOverseasRelationalResearchonLanguage1.4.1DomesticResearchonLanguageTransferInournation,numerouslinguistshavedonelotsofstudiesinthefunctionofmotherlanguageforsecondlanguageacquisition.Someanalyzedtheerrorsfromstudentscompositioncorpusandothersstatedtheinfluencenativelanguageexertsonforeignlanguagewriting.Nevertheless,allofthemmakeacommentonthenegativetransferofmothertongue.ZhangCongde(1994)analyzedandarguedtheerrorsoccurringatthelevelofform,phonemeandlexis.Meanwhile,hepointedoutthattheerrorsastheresultofnativelanguagetransfercomposedthemainreasonwhyhighschoolstudentscommitted.InTheCulturalTransferofMotherLanguageinEnglishWriting,LongYue(2003)proposedthatChinesestudentsareregularlynotabletorealizetheirborrowingmotherlanguagethinkingandthattheytreatthingsandexpressideasfromChinesemode.Nativeculturecommonlyexertanegativetransferonstudents’foreignlanguagelearningandwriting,asmeansthenegativetransferstemmingfromnativeculturewillinterferewithlanguagelearning.ZhuangLing(2002)supportedinNativeLanguageTransferandTranslationStudyingthatforeignlanguagelearnersespeciallybeginnersusuallysolvethedifficultiestheyencounterinforeignlanguagelearningwiththeaidoftheknowledgeonnativelanguage.ShuDingfang(1996)alsoholdtheviewthat51%oftheerrorscommittedbystudentswhosenativelanguageisChinesecomefromnativelanguageinterference.DuShichun(1985)thinksthatitisimpossibletoavoidmothertongueinterferenceduringlanguagelearningwhichalwaysoccurinthedifferencesandplausiblepointsbetweentwolanguages.LiuDonghong(2002)pointedoutmorethan20phenomenaonmotherlanguagenegativetransferinASurveyofPictureCompositionofCollegeStudentsinvolving21typicalerrortypes,suchassub-verbagreement,tenseerror,mechanicalapplicationofChinesewords,conjunctionomission,misapplicationofnon-finiteverb,etc,amongwhich16ofthemarewiththeinfluenceofnativelanguageexcept5othertypes:spellingmistakes,misusingwords,etc.FaZhongnan(2005)alsothinksthatsecondlanguagelearningwillbeaffectedbynativelanguage.HisstudiesdemonstratedthatwiththeinfluenceofmothertongueChinesestudentshaveatendencyoffindingacorrespondingwordsorphrasewhentheyusewordsorconstructingsentences,asgivesarisetoChinesization,thereasonofwhichliesintheconfusionofthelexicalorsyntaxrulesbetweenChineseandEnglish.Themainfactorscausingnegativetransferexistinthediscrepancybetweenthetwolanguages,whichhasbeenconfirmedbyFangZhongnanthroughthetheoriesoferroranalysis.InDynamicStudyofInfluenceofMotherTongueintheProcessofForeignLanguageWriting,GuoChunfangandLiuFang(1997)believethatthefunctionsofnativelanguageintheprocessofforeignlanguageoutputare:thelogicalinferenceofcompositioncontenr;theanalysisoflinguisticform;theretrieveofrelevantforeignwords,phraseandsentence.WenQiufangandGuoChunjiealsohavemadetherelatedstudyonnativelanguagethinkingandforeignlanguagewritingabilityandpointedoutthatthelatterisrelatedtotheformer.Thestudentswithabettercapacityofexpressionrelylessonnativelanguagewhilesomeoneowningpoorerabilitycountmoreonmotherlanguage.ChapterIIResearchMethod2.1ThePurposeofThisResearchThepurposeofthisresearchistoenableteachersandstudentshaveareasonableattitudetowardtheerrorsinEnglishlearningandrealizethesimilaritiesaswellasdifferencesbetweenChineseandEnglishbasedonthestudyonthenegativetransferofnativelanguageforhighschoolstudents’writing.Asaresult,theirEnglishthinkingwilltakeshapeandwritingcompetencewillbeadvanced.Moreimportantlythanallofthese,theycanbenefitfromitnomatterinCollegeEntranceExaminationoreveninthefuturecareer.Inaddition,otherfraternitiescanalsogetsomehelpinrealsensefromthestudyresults.Thefollowingquestionsneedtobesolvedinthisstudy:1.Howdohighschoolstudentsdependupontheirnativelanguageinwriting?2.WhichnegativetransferswillappearinEnglishwritingcurrently?3.What’stherootreasoncausingthenegativetransferinhighschoolEnglishwriting?4.Whattargetstrategiesaresupposedtobeadoptedtoavoidmothertonguenegativetransfer?2.2TheStudyObject225seniorstudents,extractedfromthreeschoolsindifferenttypesinLeshan,arethesubjectsofthisstudy.Thebelowtabledescribesthespecificdistributionandthenumbersofboysandgirls.(Table2.1).Table2.1ThedistributionofselectedboysandgirlsSchoolBoysGirlssummationLeshanAseniorhighschool373875LeshanBseniorhighschool354075LeshanCseniorhighschool363975Thesum108117225Forthesakeofthereliabilityandthevalidityofthisstudy,thereareseveralfacetsIhaveconsideredsyntheticallyforthesubjects:inthefirstplace,allthethreedifferenttypesschoolsarecitylevel,wherestudentsarescatteredaroundvariousdistrictswhoseEnglishlevelsarediverse,asaconsequenceofthis,theyaresuitabletobeselectedastheobjectsowningtotherepresentativeness;secondly,theratioofthetwogendersareflatinthisstudy,dedicatedtoeasetheeffectsproducedbythedifferencesbetweengendersandthoughts.Theratiobalanceisdevotedtotheefficientreflectionoftheoverallconditions,meanwhile,itsrationalityandrepresentativenesscanalsobekeptcommendably.2.3TheResearchMethodIntheinterestofitsexactreliabilityandvalidity,quantitativeandqualitativeanalysisisemployedunitedlyinthisthesis.Quantitativeanalysisconcernsmainlythedistributionoferrortypesinstudents’writing.Qualitativeanalysisaccountsforthereasonsleadingtothewrongoutcomeatlengthandhowdothestudentsdependuponnativelanguageinthelightofquestionnaire,respondingtothefourquestionsposedatthebeginningofthischapter.Iputtwomethodstouseinthisthesis:①questionnaire②compositionanalysis2.3.1QuestionnaireSurveyIhaveconsultedabundantreferenceswhendesigningthequestionnaire,andhavecompletedandhandedwithintwentyminutesunderthesupervisionofthecourseteacher.Asamatterofthefact,thisquestionnaireisendowedwithgoodreliabilityandvalidity.Thequestionnaireisdesignedtofindoutwhetherthestudentsareabletobeindependentfromnativelanguageduringwriting.Idistributedquestionnairestothe225studentswhosecompositionswereselected.Thisquestionnaireiscomposedoftwentyquestions.Eachofthequestionsinvolvesfiveoptionswithdifferentpoint:“Always”(tenpoints);“often”(Eightpoints);“Sometimes”(sixpoints);“Seldom”(fourpoints);“Never”(twopoints),andtheaggregatescoreisonehundredpoints.

亚博app英超买球的首选

AStudyofNegativeTransferofNativeLanguageonSeniorHighSchoolEnglishWritingAbstractWriting,anoutputskill,isattachedimportancebyincreasingteachersandstudentsinEnglishteachingofournation.GrowingscoreshavebeenaddedtowritinginCollegeEntranceExamination.Nevertheless,thereislittleeffectiveprogressinseniorhighschoolstudents’writingcapacity.WhatcausedthisphenomenonisthatthecurrentEnglishstudyisalwaysbasedonnativelanguagetoacertainextant.Therefore,theinfluenceofnativelanguageishardtobeavoided.Inresponsetothisphenomenon,IanalyzetheimpactofmothertongueuponhighschoolEnglishwritingspecificallyinaccordancewiththerelativetheoriesonlanguagetransfer.ThisthesisbeginningwiththeEnglishwritingofseniorhighschoolstudentswithcombinationofrelevanttheoriesasSecondLanguageAcquisitionandpreviousresearchachievements,analyzestheerrorsinEnglishcausedbynativelanguagenegativetransferquantitativelyandqualitatively.Ichoosethreedifferenttypesofhighschools,75studentseachschool,225intotal,toconductquestionnairesurveyandasamplingtest.Thetestresultshowsthatseniorhighschoolstudentsareinterferedbynativelanguageatdifferentdegrees.Intermsofforms,lexis,sentencestructureanddiscourse,theerrorsresultedinmothertonguenegativetransferareinduced.Eachsentenceisattachedbytypicalexamplestofindoutthereasonsleadingtothecommonerrorsbymothertonguenegativetransfer.Finally,thisthesisarrivesataconclusionthatEnglishteachersaresupposedtotrainthewritingofhighschoolstudentsinaspectstolexis,sentencewritingpatternsandstructuresforthesakeoftheimprovementofwritingabilityaswellasabettereffectonEnglishwritinglesson.Thisthesisiscomposedofsixchapters.Chapteroneistheintroductiondescribingthebackground,thesignificanceandthecorrelativebasictheoriesofthisthesis,involvinginterlanguagetheory,erroranalysisaswellastransporttheory,atlast,therelatedresearchesathomeandaboard.Chaptertwo,thestudydesign,introducestheobjectofstudy,researchmethodsandproceduresinthefirstplaceandthefurtherexplanationsofthetwomethodsincluded,theproceduresofquestionnaireandcompositionanalysis.Afterwards,IsortouttheerrorsinEnglishwritingandcollectthedata.Chapterthreepresentsthestudyresultsandanalysis.Inthischapter,thethesisanalyzesanddiscussestheresultofquestionnaireandthedataoferroranalysistopointoutwhymothertonguenegativetransferimpactsonEnglishwriting.  chapterfour,thecoreofthewholethesis,inwhichthenegativetransfertheoryisunitedwithinstanceanalysis,analyzesthetypesandreasonsoftheseerrorsfromtheaspectsofform,lexis,sentencestructureanddiscourse.  Chapterfiveisappliedtopropoundthesuggestions,onthebasisofnegativetransferphenomenon,aimingatpromotingwritingabilityofstudentsandhelpingEnglishteachersavoidsucherrorseffectivelybyloweringthenegativeinfluencefrommothertongue.  Chaptersix,thelastpart,statesthelimitationofthisthesisandtheconsiderationoffurtherstudy.  Keywords:negativetransferofmothertongue;Englishwriting;inspiration目录概要1Abstract3目录5Introduction6ChapterIliteraturereview81.1Transferandlanguagetransfer81.2Erroranalysis101.3Interlanguagetheory12ChapterIIResearchMethod142.1ThePurposeofThisResearch142.2TheStudyObject142.3TheResearchMethod152.3.1QuestionnaireSurvey152.3.2CompositionAnalysis16ChapterIIIDataAnalysis183.1TheDataAnalysisofQuestionnaire183.2DataAnalysisofErrorinComposition193.3TheSurveySummaryofNativeLanguageNegativeTransfer22ChapterIVTheInstanceAnalysisofNativeLanguageTransferinHighSchoolStudents’Writing234.1.1ArticalError244.1.2VerbFormError254.1.3NounFormError274.1.4PronounFormError284.4LexicalTransferErrors294.2.1MisapplicationofPartsofSpeech294.2.2MisapplicationoftheMeaningofVocabulary334.2.3InappropriateCollocation344.3TheTransferErrorsinSentenceStructure374.3.1LackofConjunctionsandFalseArrangementofSimpleSentences374.3.4MisapplicationofSubordinateandCoordinateConjunctions424.3.5MisapplicationofNegation424.3.6WordDisorder434.4TransferErrorsatDiscourseLevel454.4.1NegativeTransferofDiscoursePattern454.4.2NegativeTransferofCohesion47ChapterVEnglishPedagogicalImplicationsSummarizedfromPreviousStudy485.1AdoptaPositiveAttitudetowardstheErrorsRootingfromtheNegativeTransferofNativeLanguage495.3EnforcingCross-culturalCommunicationAwareness535.4EnforcingLanguageInputthroughReadingandReciting545.4.1Enforcingreading545.4.2Enforcingreciting55Bibliography58AppendixⅠ61AppendixII63AppendixIII64AppendixIV65                        IntroductionTheNewEnglishCurriculumStandardwasputforward,explicatingthatseniorEnglish,asthecrucialcurriculumtoenhancelanguageabilityandtocultivatecomprehensivequalityeducationofstudent,issupposedtodevelopbothstudents’comprehensivelanguageapplicationabilityandthethreefollowingcapacitiesemphaticallyincludingtheabilityofusingEnglishtocommunicateappropriately;ofobtainingandprocessinginformation;ofanalyzingandsettlingamatter(2002).Thinkingandexpressionlayafoundationfortheabilitiesmentionedabove.Expressionabilityembracestheabilityofexpressingorallyandinwrittenform,amongwhichEnglishwrittenformisalsocanbethoughtasakindofextremelyvitalone,.DingWangdao,onefamouslinguistician,oncesuggestedthatwritingplaysalargeroleinEnglishlearningprocess(丁往道,1994).Asaresult,thecapacityofusingEnglishtocommunicateisoughttobeseenasoneofthemainpurposesinlessons.RemainingacorepartofCollegeEntranceExamination,thescoresofwritinghasbeenincreasedfrom10%to20%overrecentyears.AnalyzedfromtheCollegeEntranceExaminationresults,students’writingabilityarestillatalowerlevel.Simplesentences,superfluoussinglesentences,erroneoususageofwordsandsentencesandthevestigesofChinesethinkingmodeappearinstudents’usualwriting(须玮菁,2010).Chinesestudents’writinglagsfarbehindtheircompetenceingrammar,vocabularyandreading(2002,蔡基刚).Fromtheperspectiveofanstudent-teacher,Ifoundthatthegreatmassofstudentshaveafearfulsenseforwriting,asgivingrisetotheunsatisfiedfeelingfortheirwritinginvoluntary.Inferringfromabovecircumstances,wehavegottoadmitthetruththatEnglishlearningislimitedbymothertonguebeyonddoubt.IncurrentEnglishteaching,however,Chinesestudentsarestillweakinwriting.EnglishteachersinChinaareunabletorealizeandanalyzetheerrorscausedbynativelanguagenegativetransfer.Therefore,mostofEnglishteachersjustgothroughthemotionsintheirteaching,whichplaguesstudentswithnegativetransferofmothertongueseverely.Naturally,thewritingabilityhasbeenleftbehind.Withthepurposeoftheenhancementofwriting,numerousexpertsjoininghandswithteachersachievedremarkablyintheirresearches,nonetheless,theresultsarefarfromsatisfactory.Linguistsabroadexperimentedmuchtoconfirmtheinterferenceonwriting.Overrecentyears,muchprogresshasbeenachievedinstudyingthenegativetransferofmothertongue.Forexample,themajorityofexpertshavefocusedonwritingstylebutfailedinthedifferencesbetweenthetwolanguages.Tiisuneasytodecidetheexactdegreeofinterferenceonlywithqualitativeanalysis.Inaddition,thedomesticempiricalstudiesinthisregardusuallyselectundergraduatesoradultsastheirresearchobjects,layingparticularstressonCET4orCET6.inconsequence,littleguidingsignificancewasshowedforEnglishwritingteaching.Inordertoworkoutmoreeffectiveapproachesandstrategiestomotivatestudentstolearn,I,absorbingandbenefitingfromthebasisoftheformerachievements,didtheempiricalresearchonnativelanguagenegativetransferinseniorhighschoolEnglishwriting,aimingatinvestigatingwhetherhighschoolstudentsdependonmothertonguethinking,thecommonerrorsengenderedbynegativetransferandthereasons.Andthen,wearecapabletoprovideafeasibleteachingstrategywhichissuitedtohighschoolwriting,asisofhelptowritingteaching.Duringthestudyprocess,Ianalyzevariouslayersofthenegativetransferoccurringamonghighschoolstudentsindetailwitherroranalysisandinterlanguagetheory,throughwhichEnglishteachersarecapableoftakingarightattitudetowardtheerrorsappearinginlearningandofdifferentiatingthedissimilaritiesbetweenmothertongueandEnglish,consciously.Accordingly,thewritingabilitycanbeimproved;theEnglishthinkingcanbeshaped;thesolidfoundationcanbelaid.Englishteachersarealsoequippedwithstrongconsciousnessofdiscoveringandsettlingproblemssimultaneously.ChapterIliteraturereviewThestudiesonthenegativetransferofnativelanguagehavebecomeprosperousafterdecadenceinmorethanhalfofcentury.Let’sretrospecttheseseveraltheoriesinvolvedbothdomesticandoverseasduringthephase.TransferandlanguagetransferTransferisapsychologicaltermoriginally,referringtohowreceivedknowledge,technicalability,learningmethodandattitudeaffectnewknowledge,newreceivedskillsandthewaytacklingnewproblems(陈琦,刘儒德,1997).Forinstance,studyingaforeignlanguageisconductivetoanotherone;readingcompetenceisabletocontributetosuccessfulwriting;bothofthesearetransfer.Notonlyhassuch,transfercontainedmotherskills,emotionandattitudeaswellbesidesknowledgetransfer.Therefore

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,transferissueisnotonlyconfinedtoknowledgelearningbutmanyotherfieldsoflearning.(郑大皆,1999).H.EllisdefinedtransferasahypothesisthatlearningtaskAwillexerteffectontaskB(H.Ellis,1965).JamesreplacedtaskAandtaskBinH.Ellis’definitionwithL1andL2(James,1980).Therearevariousversionsoflanguagetransferasamatteroffact.Forsome,theyconsistentwiththisperspectivethatlanguagetransferisonekindofmodestudyinglanguageacquisition,whileothersnominatelanguagetransferasanoutputstrategy.(俞理明,2004).Nevertheless,thepeoplebeingrecognizedandacceptedwidelyinthefieldoflinguisticsisOdlinwhoconsideredthattransfermeansakindofcross-linguisticinfluencebroughtaboutbythesimilarityordiscrepancybetweentargetlanguageandanyotheracquiredpartiallyandentirely,language(Odlin,1989).Healsopointedouttransferisreflectednotonlyinlearningerrors-negativetransferbutalsoinfacilitation-positivetransfer.Thatmeanspositivetransferreferstousingtheseknowledgewithreceivedlanguageknowledge,actuallyinlearningprocess.Conversely,negativetransferisalsocalledinterference,distractedbywhichstudentswillmakeerrorsinwriting.Regardlessofhowdifferentlywedefinetransfer,wehavetoadmit,acognitiveactivity,isamentalprocessingonone’sowninitiative.Profoundstudieshavebeenmadebymultitudinouspsychologistathomeandabroad,amongwhichcognitivestructuretheoryproposedbyAusubelrepresentsamainstreamdiscussingtransferfromtheviewofcognitiveviewpoint,cognitivestructuretheorystickstothepointthattransferisaprocessintegratingoldandnewexperience,achievedbymeansofassimilation,adaptationandreconstruction,theessenceofwhichistheinterplayislinkedwithrelevantconceptsintheexistingcognitivestructurestoformnewcognitivestructurethereby(须玮菁,2010).Inthelightofitseffects,transfercanbedividedintopositiveandnegativetransfer.Ifonesortoflearningfacilitatestheotherone,wecallitpositivetransfer.Ifutilizedappropriately,studentswillhavetheabilityofunderstandingtherestbyanalogy.Negativetransfer,alsocalledpassiveinfluence,hasanegativeeffectuponlanguagelearning.Negativetransfertheory,datingbacktothe1950s,hascontributedtolanguagelearningandstudy.AmericanstructuralistRobertLado(1975),therepresentativesofthisperiod,holdtheviewthatlanguagetransferimpedeslanguageacquisitionprimarily.Hesuggested,inCross-culturalLinguistics,thekeytoknowhowdifficultlearninglanguageitisliesincomparingnativelanguagewithforeignlanguage.Inaccordancewithsequence,transfercanbedividedintoforwardtransferandbackwardtransfer.Forexample,whenlearningAhappensbeforelearningB,wecalltheeffectfromAonBforwardtransfer.Rather,backwardtransfermeansinfluenceonBfromA.Thetwotransfersabovearecombinedtoproducefourforms-positiveforwardtransfer,positivebackwardtransfer,negativebackwardtransfer,negativeforwardtransfer.Forinstance,youlearnreadingfirst,thenwriting,andtheimprovementofreadingcompetenceconducestheformationofwritingcompetence.Thisway,thereisapositiveforwardtransfersituationbetweenreadingandwriting.Asanotherexample,ChinesephonemehasanegativeimpactuponlatterEnglishpronunciation,asiscallednegativeforwardtransfer.(张大皆,1999).Languagetransfer,asonekindoftransfers,hasbeenthefocusforpsychologistsandlinguiststostudyandargue.Commonelementstheory,proposedbyThordikeelal,suggeststhatthemorecommonelementsandsimilarities,theeasiertoproducepositivetransfer,onthecontrary,negativetransfertakesplace.Ifthistheoryisappliedinlanguagetransfer,themorecommonelementsbetweentwolanguages,itwillbeeasierforpositivetransfertohappen,otherwise,negativetransferwilloccur.Forinstance,Chinese,onepartoftheSino-Tibetanlinguisticsystem,sharelittlecommonelementswithEnglish,whichbringsaboutthemutualinterference,Ausubelheldthepoint,however,itisunpracticalandineffectivetoshuntheinterlanguageandthetransferroleplayedbymothertongue.Inotherwords,thenativeChinesespeakerwillbeinterferedwiththenegativetransferfromChineseundoubtedlyastoconstructtheirownprepositionandlanguagecompetencestructurewiththepurposeofapproachingEnglish(曾鹏,2005).1.2ErroranalysisErroranalysis,reigningovertheworldinthe1970s,displacedthecontrastivetheoryanalysiscomparingthedifferencesbetweennativelanguageandtargetlanguagetopredicterror(Fries,1952).Contrastiveanalysishypothesisproposedbybehaviorismscholar-Lado91957),supportswhatcauseslearningdifficultiesisthedissimilitudebetweennativeandtargetlanguage,whoseeffectisnegativesettinglearningback.Andyetcontrastiveanalysishypothesishasnotbeenprovedintheareaofempiricalresearch.Manyaexperimenthavedemonstratedthatlanguagedifferenceistherootreasonleadinglearningdifficulty.Erroranalysiswillsupersedecontrastiveanalysisforitslimitation.Nevertheless,thisdoesn’tsignifythereisnotanymitigatingvirtueincontrastiveanalysis.whenexplainingmassesofproblemsinsecondlanguagelearning,Jamesemphasizedthemutualcomplementationbetweenthetwo(James,1980).CorderformulatedthisviewinThesecondSignificanceofLearner’sError(Corder,1967).Corderregardederrorasanindispensablepartinlearningsecondlanguage.Learnerswouldnotpromotetheirlanguageabilitywithoutthefeedbackstemmingfromtheexternalworldsupposingtheydidnoterrinlearning,onaccountofwhichtheirlanguagelearningprocesswouldbehindered.Corderlaidstressontheerrorsappearedinstudyshowingagreathelpforteacherstorealizestudents’currentmasteredlanguagesystem,theachieveddegreeaswellaslearningstrategiesandprocedure.Corder’sthoughtshavebeenofimportanceforustodiscussstudents’languagedevelopment.Erroranalysisisconsideredtobeofsignificance,accordingtowhichCorderpinpointedthevaluetheerrorspossessedwhichincarnatedinthefollowingaspects:1,Teachersareabletounderstandhowstudentsdoinlearning;2,Researchersarecapableofawaringthelanguage;earningprocessandthelearningstrategiesadoptedbystudents;3,Astostudents,theycanjudgewhethertheymakearightassumptionbasedinthis9Corder,1967).Corderdividederroranalysisintofiveprocedures:①Select,collectandanalyzelinguisticdata:Duringcertainstages,collectsomelinguisticdatafromforeignlanguagelearnersonpurposethatcanbewrittenexercises,oralexpressionaswellaslisteningsurvey.Writtendataisutilizedinthisthesis.②Identifyandvalidateerror:conformingwhatiserrorisextremelycrucialinerroranalysis.wearesupposedtodistinguishwhetherthesentencesthestudentssaidmeetthecriterionornotinaccordancewithstandardsyntaxandcommunicativecontext.Corderclassifiedtheerrorsproducedinsecondlanguageacquisition,theformerofwhichiscommonlycallederroroccurringinlearningfrequentlywhichisimpossibletobecorrectedbystudentsthemselves;thelatterisnamedasmistakeengenderedonaccountoftensionorpoorshapeoflearnersbutnotrelatedtolanguageability(Corder,1974).Brown,however,thoughtitistoughtodifferentiatemistakeanderrorinvirtueofsubjectiveapproach(Brown,2002).Expressionalerroristhemainformamongagreatdealofhighschoolstudents’errorsappearingsocontinuallybeyondlearners’abilitywhichmaynotbedefinedascarelessnessornegligenceastoevolveintosystemerror.Inviewofthereasonsabove,thethesisdiscriminates,botharetheresearchobjects,thedifferencebetweenerrorandmistake.③Thecategoryoferrors:alargeamountofmethodsarecapableofbeingappliedtoclassifyerrors(suchasDulay,BurtandKrashen,1982;James,2001),butintheperspectiveofTames,allthesecategoriesareexcessivelysimplexanditwouldbebetterifutilizedtogether.ErrorcanbedividedintoglobalandpartialerrorstandingonthefacetofevaluationaccordingtoDulay,BurtandKrashen(1982).Globalerrorinvolvesthebiasedonecausedbythebreachofthewholesentencestructure,theinterrelationofclausesandtheconnectionamongthemaincomponents,suchasmisapplicationormissingofconjunction,reversingofmainphrasesandovergeneralizationofsyntaxrules.Partialerrorreferstothebiasederrorexistinginoneconstituentorinoneclauseofitscomplexsentence,forexample,misusingormissingthesuffixofverbandnoun,orarticleandauxiliary.Nevertheless,bynomeansdoseitmeanabsolutenessintheabovedistinguishment,becausetheglobalerrorinonesentencemaybecomethepartialoneinanothersentenceiftheformerisinsertedintoacomplexsentence.OvertandcoverterrorarethoughtastwocategoriesoferrorintermsofCorder.Theformercontainssomekindofevidenterrorsingrammarandvocabulary,forinstance,theerrorswithrespecttoplurals,lesssensitivetocause,spelling,tense,sentencestructure,themixingnounandverbaswellasadjectiveandadverb.Coverterrorreferstothiskindoferror.1.3InterlanguagetheoryProposedbyS.PitCorderandLarrySelinker,theconceptofInterlinguawasestablishedaslearners’independentsystemofthesecondlanguagewhichisofneitherthenativelanguagenorthesecondlanguage,butacontinuumorapproximationfromhisnativelanguagetothetargetlanguage.Whatlearnersproduce,correctorwrong,areevidenceoftheapproximationfromtheirfirstlanguagetothetargetlanguage.Fromthenonbymeansofvariousdatacollectionmethodsandanalysis,researchershavebeenmakingpainstakingeffortsinthehopethatsomeuniver

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saldevelopmentalsequenceofsecondlanguagelearners’interlinguawouldbediscovered(戴炜栋2002,164-165).AccordingtoSpelunker(1972),Interlinguareferstoasystemthatthelearnersofthesecondlanguageareacquiringandusingataparticularstageoflearning.Thephenomenonreferredtohavebeenusedbydifferentresearchers.ThemainviewsabouttheerrorsintheInterlinguatheoryarefollowing:errorsinthelanguageacquisitionaremaderulessomewhatinthetargetlanguage,notsystemrulesofthelanguageareconstructedbythelearnersthemselves.Inotherwords,tothelearners’ofthenativelanguage,anysentencewrittenisgrammaticalandright(Corder,1971:32).Nowadays,manyresearchersthinkerrorsarethesymbolsoflanguagedevelopment.Forerrors,therearenotanyrulestoobeyandlearnershavemasteredandknowhowtodealwiththerulesofthetargetlanguagecorrectly.SelinkerassumesthatInterlinguaisanaturallanguageandsystematicthroughoutinitsdevelopment.ThefirstlanguagereflectsthatthelearnerstrytoconstructalinguisticsystemandapproachesinlearningaSecondlanguage.DuringSecondLanguageAcquisitionlearning,thelearners’FirstLanguageLearninghasundergonedifferentstepsoflanguagedevelopment,becausethelearnersgothroughfromzeroknowledgetoperfectknowledgeinlanguagelearning.Selinker(1972)inaccordancetotheInterlinguaTheory,theknowledgeonthetargetlanguageacquired;thelearnersnotonlymixsimplylanguagecombiningthetargetlanguageandthemothertonguebutconsistaseriesofsystemswithspecificcharacteristics.Withthedevelopmentoflanguagelearningandtheadvancementofthelearners,theInterlinguamovescloserandclosertothetargetlanguage.Someimportantexamplesoftheterm“interlingua”actuallyrevealthenatureofInterlinguaitselfinacertainextent.TheInterlinguasystem,asitsnamesuggests,isneitherL1norL2butsomethinginbetween.ContrastiveAnalysisprovidestheoreticalbasisfor“whattoteach”and“howtoteach”,anditsresearchobjectsarethelearners’mothertongueandtargetlanguage.TheInterlinguatheoryisusedtorefertoashiftfromteachingperspectivetolearningperspective;itslanguagesystemisregardedtobeindependent,equaltolearners’mothertonguesystem.Inotherwords,Interlinguastudiesnotonlyrefertolearners’mothertonguesystem,buttherelationshipbetweenlearners’Interlinguasystemandthelearners’ownlearningprocess.Interlinguastudyobservesthecompletechanginginthestudyofsecondlanguageacquisition.WhenEllis(1994:351)evaluatestheInterlinguatheory,hepointsoutthattheInterlinguatheoryisasuitablebeginninginSecondLanguageAcquisitionresearch,asitaimsatprovidingexplainingtheoriesforSecondLanguageAcquisition.1.4TheDomesticandOverseasRelationalResearchonLanguageTransfer1.4.1DomesticResearchonLanguageTransfer1.4.2OverseasResearchonLanguageTransfer.1.4TheDomesticandOverseasRelationalResearchonLanguage1.4.1DomesticResearchonLanguageTransferInournation,numerouslinguistshavedonelotsofstudiesinthefunctionofmotherlanguageforsecondlanguageacquisition.Someanalyzedtheerrorsfromstudentscompositioncorpusandothersstatedtheinfluencenativelanguageexertsonforeignlanguagewriting.Nevertheless,allofthemmakeacommentonthenegativetransferofmothertongue.ZhangCongde(1994)analyzedandarguedtheerrorsoccurringatthelevelofform,phonemeandlexis.Meanwhile,hepointedoutthattheerrorsastheresultofnativelanguagetransfercomposedthemainreasonwhyhighschoolstudentscommitted.InTheCulturalTransferofMotherLanguageinEnglishWriting,LongYue(2003)proposedthatChinesestudentsareregularlynotabletorealizetheirborrowingmotherlanguagethinkingandthattheytreatthingsandexpressideasfromChinesemode.Nativeculturecommonlyexertanegativetransferonstudents’foreignlanguagelearningandwriting,asmeansthenegativetransferstemmingfromnativeculturewillinterferewithlanguagelearning.ZhuangLing(2002)supportedinNativeLanguageTransferandTranslationStudyingthatforeignlanguagelearnersespeciallybeginnersusuallysolvethedifficultiestheyencounterinforeignlanguagelearningwiththeaidoftheknowledgeonnativelanguage.ShuDingfang(1996)alsoholdtheviewthat51%oftheerrorscommittedbystudentswhosenativelanguageisChinesecomefromnativelanguageinterference.DuShichun(1985)thinksthatitisimpossibletoavoidmothertongueinterferenceduringlanguagelearningwhichalwaysoccurinthedifferencesandplausiblepointsbetweentwolanguages.LiuDonghong(2002)pointedoutmorethan20phenomenaonmotherlanguagenegativetransferinASurveyofPictureCompositionofCollegeStudentsinvolving21typicalerrortypes,suchassub-verbagreement,tenseerror,mechanicalapplicationofChinesewords,conjunctionomission,misapplicationofnon-finiteverb,etc,amongwhich16ofthemarewiththeinfluenceofnativelanguageexcept5othertypes:spellingmistakes,misusingwords,etc.FaZhongnan(2005)alsothinksthatsecondlanguagelearningwillbeaffectedbynativelanguage.HisstudiesdemonstratedthatwiththeinfluenceofmothertongueChinesestudentshaveatendencyoffindingacorrespondingwordsorphrasewhentheyusewordsorconstructingsentences,asgivesarisetoChinesization,thereasonofwhichliesintheconfusionofthelexicalorsyntaxrulesbetweenChineseandEnglish.Themainfactorscausingnegativetransferexistinthediscrepancybetweenthetwolanguages,whichhasbeenconfirmedbyFangZhongnanthroughthetheoriesoferroranalysis.InDynamicStudyofInfluenceofMotherTongueintheProcessofForeignLanguageWriting,GuoChunfangandLiuFang(1997)believethatthefunctionsofnativelanguageintheprocessofforeignlanguageoutputare:thelogicalinferenceofcompositioncontenr;theanalysisoflinguisticform;theretrieveofrelevantforeignwords,phraseandsentence.WenQiufangandGuoChunjiealsohavemadetherelatedstudyonnativelanguagethinkingandforeignlanguagewritingabilityandpointedoutthatthelatterisrelatedtotheformer.Thestudentswithabettercapacityofexpressionrelylessonnativelanguagewhilesomeoneowningpoorerabilitycountmoreonmotherlanguage.ChapterIIResearchMethod2.1ThePurposeofThisResearchThepurposeofthisresearchistoenableteachersandstudentshaveareasonableattitudetowardtheerrorsinEnglishlearningandrealizethesimilaritiesaswellasdifferencesbetweenChineseandEnglishbasedonthestudyonthenegativetransferofnativelanguageforhighschoolstudents’writing.Asaresult,theirEnglishthinkingwilltakeshapeandwritingcompetencewillbeadvanced.Moreimportantlythanallofthese,theycanbenefitfromitnomatterinCollegeEntranceExaminationoreveninthefuturecareer.Inaddition,otherfraternitiescanalsogetsomehelpinrealsensefromthestudyresults.Thefollowingquestionsneedtobesolvedinthisstudy:1.Howdohighschoolstudentsdependupontheirnativelanguageinwriting?2.WhichnegativetransferswillappearinEnglishwritingcurrently?3.What’stherootreasoncausingthenegativetransferinhighschoolEnglishwriting?4.Whattargetstrategiesaresupposedtobeadoptedtoavoidmothertonguenegativetransfer?2.2TheStudyObject225seniorstudents,extractedfromthreeschoolsindifferenttypesinLeshan,arethesubjectsofthisstudy.Thebelowtabledescribesthespecificdistributionandthenumbersofboysandgirls.(Table2.1).Table2.1ThedistributionofselectedboysandgirlsSchoolBoysGirlssummationLeshanAseniorhighschool373875LeshanBseniorhighschool354075LeshanCseniorhighschool363975Thesum108117225Forthesakeofthereliabilityandthevalidityofthisstudy,thereareseveralfacetsIhaveconsideredsyntheticallyforthesubjects:inthefirstplace,allthethreedifferenttypesschoolsarecitylevel,wherestudentsarescatteredaroundvariousdistrictswhoseEnglishlevelsarediverse,asaconsequenceofthis,theyaresuitabletobeselectedastheobjectsowningtotherepresentativeness;secondly,theratioofthetwogendersareflatinthisstudy,dedicatedtoeasetheeffectsproducedbythedifferencesbetweengendersandthoughts.Theratiobalanceisdevotedtotheefficientreflectionoftheoverallconditions,meanwhile,itsrationalityandrepresentativenesscanalsobekeptcommendably.2.3TheResearchMethodIntheinterestofitsexactreliabilityandvalidity,quantitativeandqualitativeanalysisisemployedunitedlyinthisthesis.Quantitativeanalysisconcernsmainlythedistributionoferrortypesinstudents’writing.Qualitativeanalysisaccountsforthereasonsleadingtothewrongoutcomeatlengthandhowdothestudentsdependuponnativelanguageinthelightofquestionnaire,respondingtothefourquestionsposedatthebeginningofthischapter.Iputtwomethodstouseinthisthesis:①questionnaire②compositionanalysis2.3.1QuestionnaireSurveyIhaveconsultedabundantreferenceswhendesigningthequestionnaire,andhavecompletedandhandedwithintwentyminutesunderthesupervisionofthecourseteacher.Asamatterofthefact,thisquestionnaireisendowedwithgoodreliabilityandvalidity.Thequestionnaireisdesignedtofindoutwhetherthestudentsareabletobeindependentfromnativelanguageduringwriting.Idistributedquestionnairestothe225studentswhosecompositionswereselected.Thisquestionnaireiscomposedoftwentyquestions.Eachofthequestionsinvolvesfiveoptionswithdifferentpoint:“Always”(tenpoints);“often”(Eightpoints);“Sometimes”(sixpoints);“Seldom”(fourpoints);“Never”(twopoints),andtheaggregatescoreisonehundredpoints
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